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Measuring the voltage is about as close as you can easily get at home.

I wouldn't worry unduly about damaging the drivers; with modern units like the Exoduses it will take insensitivity on your part (not paying attention to the drivers making inappropriate noises) or a desire to inflict damage to harm them. With actual music/movie content the peak to average ratio means they won't heat up all that much, likely not enough to damage the coils, but what will most likely cause damage is over excursion. Pay attention to this during testing and use and you'll be fine. If in doubt, back it off a bit. You could also face the drivers upwards during testing, and make a cardboard bridge over the driver, cut so that it doesn't interfere with the surround and the cone touches it at Xmax; if it doesn't touch, great and if it does, you'll know when you've reached the driver's limit.

I've used kW amps to power my vintage Celestion 15W speakers without damage because I back off when they start to sound unhappy.
 

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Thanks gents. I'm an electronics dummy so you will have to bear with me. So I can use my el cheapo voltage meter to do this?
You can with a sine or pink noise as the source, but not with a dynamic signal. DVM's use a different type of ADC which is quite slow and will always be lagging behind typical 'content' signals. For that, a resistive divider to drop the signal to a low enough level for your soundcard input and a scope program would work better.

Its over excursion that I am worried about. I just don't want to do something foolish the first time I fire the drivers up.
Relax, The only way you'll damage drivers on initial fire up is if you have the signal levels maxxed out and start to play from the middle of a track. Bring it up slowly and listen for the driver to start to sound strained and/or use my cardboard Xmax indicator. Drivers aren't like fuses that go 'pop' very easily.
 
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