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As has been said already, welcome to the madness! :)

Going to break this apart a little......

-I want to retain the best possible sound quality. The room is totally unfinished. No insulation...no flooring. we are going to frame it after I get all of my thoughts together. My question would be what type of insulation is best to keep the sound in and the outdoors out.
Insulation is just a small part of the whole for sound isolation. Probably the biggest piece is decoupling your walls from your studs as best you can to reduce the ability for low frequency wavelengths to cause vibrations which then travel through your studs to other areas of your structure. You can accomplish this by constructing a "room-in-a-room" or by using clips / channel. I went with clips and channel as my room is in the basement and I had nowhere near the ceiling height you have. For more information on clips / channel, you can check out The SoundProofing Company's website.

Another technique used quite heavily is to do 2 layers of drywall with a product called Green Glue used between the 2 layers. This significantly reduces the ability for mid / high level frequencies to pass through. I actually did my first layer using OSB rather than 2 layers of drywall. Again, The SoundProofing Company's website has more info on doing this.

As far as insulation, most builds I have read use R13 in the walls and R19 in the ceiling.

-The HVAC question is another one I can answer. There is absolutely no air condition and my plan was to mount a window unit to cool the theater in the summer and an electric heater in the winter. Will this suffice?
You may want to reconsider this - after you go through the effort to do the sound isolation work, the last thing you want to do is provide a large opening for sound to bypass the soundproofing. I would either check into running a trunk off your existing HVAC, or look into a ductless mini split system.

-Other acoustics...the only "well studied friends" that I know, are all of you here. What would be the optimum acoustics I could construct to make this an awesome theater.
The main things to consider now are where you plan to put your seating. Most of your room modes (peaks and nulls) occur in the 40-60% area of your room - you likely won't be able to completely avoid this area, but you want to try to keep your primary seat out of this range if at all possible.

-Screen size- I think 16:1 will do, unless there is an advantage to having and adjustable set up and it is simple.

-I like the idea of a false wall with a motorized screen stored in the recess of the ceiling surrounded by some curtains to give it the "theater" look as opposed to the "TV room look"
The majority of movies now are shot in 2.35:1 IIRC. However, I am not sure if you can get a motorized screen in this format. Hopefully, someone with a bit more knowledge on screens can help there.

One thing you could consider is doing a fixed screen with curtains hanging in front. Most projectors have a 12V trigger that would allow you to send a "signal" to your curtain motor so that when the projector fires up, the curtains open which would give you that "theater" feel.

-I would like to have my speakers either in wall or exposed...I just have no idea how to determine the number of speakers and subs. Nor do I have any idea how to determine the amp outputs to give me the volume level I need.
Speakers are probably the most personal preference dictated purchase you will make. My suggestion here - audition as many as you can to get a feel for what sounds best to you. You can always ask here if anyone has any recommendations for speakers, but in the end, your ears will be the final judge. Also, after doing a speaker search of my own, the journey is quite fun! ;)

For your room size, I would suggest going with at least a 7.2 system (L/C/R, side and rear surrounds, and 2 subs). If it were me, I may even consider getting an AVR 9.2 or 11.2 capable so that should I choose to add additional speakers, I don't have to get a new AVR as well. As for outboard amplification, this will depend on your speakers. For example, Klipsch speakers have such a high efficiency you may not need an amp at all to reach ear-bleed levels.

-The overall look that I am shooting for is another simple one...I was a paratrooper for 20 years and I love, absolutely love war movies...from WW2 to modern and ...Any suggestions.
Only that you try to control ambient lighting as much as possible - lighter colors will refract light easily and reduce PQ.

Well may budget is not low, neither is it infinite...I have 2 friends at my beckoning that can help one is a general contractor and the other an electrician and another who is a retired machinist and very intelligent man, he is a jack of all trades and master of none...and me, well just like in the army, I guess I am the grunt. As far as the other info I can offer...the furniture I have in mind is sectional sofas and a bar with stools in the rear as opposed to theater chair. Of course I will put the seating on risers.

Thanks in advance for you answers and advice....:doh:
Great to have lots of friends with building know-how! Good luck - and we are here to help. One other suggestion f I may - when looking for advice on specific parts (i.e. projectors), try to post your question in the subforum that deals with that area. Subforums have moderators with loads of experience in that area and they may not always check the construction threads.
 
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